Dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate Uncertainty, Variability, Risk

Safe drinking water levels risk assessment, uncertainty, variations, dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate, human and animal effects
Test tubes in a laboratory. What are considerations for the uncertainty, variability and risk of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate for safe drinking water levels based on human effects and animal effects? (Photo: Public Domain)

Dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate is an organic compound with high risk of explosion. This flammable chemical is also toxic. Human exposure to the chemical leads to significant alteration of blood pressure. Also, the compound has significant toxic effects on the lungs, liver and kidneys. Vision is also impacted upon exposure. Prolonged exposure could lead to disorientation, loss of muscle control, and permanent nerve damage. This chemical is absorbed through the skin, the lungs and by ingestion. Thus, compliance is needed based on guidelines on uncertainty, variability and risks of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate, especially for ensuring the safety of drinking water.

The effects of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate on humans are used to derive guidelines and specifications for allowable levels of the compound for safe drinking water. The uncertainty and variability issues in using human effects and animal effects to derive safe drinking water levels are linked to limits in testing the chemical. Uncertainty and variability issues are also linked to variations among individuals in terms of health, physiology and capacity.

Uncertainty Issues in Using Human Effects to Derive Safe Drinking Water Levels for Dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate

In deriving safe drinking water levels for dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate using human effects, the uncertainty issues include the inability to determine the actual maximum allowable level for safe drinking water. It is illegal and unethical to test humans directly for the effects of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate at different chemical concentrations in drinking water. The risk assessor cannot put the chemical in the drinking water of subjects for experimentation to determine the effects of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate on the human body. The risk assessor or researcher is left with the option of using available information about the human effects of the chemical in drinking water, such as records of past individual cases involving dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate poisoning.

The main issue of uncertainty in using human effects for deriving safe levels of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate in drinking water is that there is no data on maximum allowable levels of the compound in water for it to be safe for drinking. The risk assessor or researcher relies on estimating this maximum safe level. Considering ethical and legal reasons, the actual maximum allowable safe level of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate in drinking water remains uncertain.

Variability Issues in Using Human Effects to Derive Safe Drinking Water Levels for Dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate

The variability issues in using human effects for data on safe drinking water levels for dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate include human variations at the individual, group and community levels. People have different reactions to the chemical based on a number of factors:

  1. The person’s health, which affects how his body responds to the chemical
  2. Natural capacity to tolerate dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate in the body
  3. Medicines and other substances the person is taking, which alters the effects of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate on the body

These variations in human effects make it difficult to determine a single data for the maximum allowable safe level of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate in drinking water.

Uncertainty & Variability Issues in Using Animal Effects to Derive Safe Drinking Water Levels for Dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate

Uncertainty issues in using animal effects to determine the maximum allowable safe level of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate in drinking water include the uncertainty of knowing whether or not the results match human effects. The effects of the chemical on animals may be different from its effects on humans. Variability issues include variations in the way individual animals respond to the chemical.

Communicating Uncertainty & Variability of Risk

Communicating the uncertainty of risk assessment of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate to a risk manager should indicate that the actual safe level for the chemical cannot be determined, and that the data is just an approximation. On the other hand, communicating the variability of risk should emphasize differences in the responses of individuals to the compound. The objective is to make sure that the risk manager is informed of the accuracy and reliability of the data. In this way, the risk manager can make realistic decisions on the risks of dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate.

Understanding Uncertainty and Variability of Risks

An understanding of uncertainty and variability is important to a person’s understanding of a potential risk linked to exposure to dipropylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate. Uncertainty means that the known risk levels may be inaccurate. Variability means that the data may be unreliable because of individual differences among persons used as sources of the data.

References
  • Aven, T., & Zio, E. (2011). Some considerations on the treatment of uncertainties in risk assessment for practical decision making. Reliability Engineering & System Safety96(1), 64-74.
  • Lange, R., & Steger-Hartmann, T. (2013). Human risk assessment of drinking water residues from pharmaceuticals: environmental pathways, pharmacological potency and toxicity. Toxicology Letters, (221), S20.
  • Ozkaynak, H., Frey, H. C., & Hubbell, B. (2010). Characterizing Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure Assessments Improves Links to Environmental Decision-Making. Emergency Medicine, 58(7), 18-22.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2011). Exposure Factors Handbook: Variability and Uncertainty.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2015). Uncertainty and Variability.
  • World Health Organization. (2004). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations (Vol. 1). World Health Organization.
  • Zeise, L., Bois, F. Y., Chiu, W. A., Hattis, D., Rusyn, I., & Guyton, K. Z. (2013). Addressing human variability in next-generation human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives121(1), 23.
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