eBay Inc. expands its business in the online marketplace, classified listings, and ticket exchange markets and beyond by effectively using strategic strengths suited to the e-commerce industry to overcome weaknesses, exploit business opportunities, and counteract threats. These strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) are internal and external strategic factors that influence the trajectory of eBay’s global business growth and development. For example, strengths affect the company’s ability to respond to threats in the online auction and retail industry environment. The results of this SWOT analysis of eBay Inc. put the online trading platform business in context. As a main player in the industry, the company’s performance relative to the SWOT variables sheds light about the challenges facing other firms that reach consumers and sellers through the Internet and related technologies. In this SWOT analysis consideration, eBay’s generic competitive strategies and intensive growth strategies are examples of managerial approaches to growing online operations and attracting and retaining consumers and vendors.
A SWOT analysis of eBay Inc. provides insights for managers regarding the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats), and the degree of their influence on business strategies. For example, the analysis determines the level of impact of weaknesses on the competitiveness of the company’s online marketplace platform and classifieds websites against Amazon, Walmart Marketplace, Etsy and Alibaba, as well as smaller competitors like Rakuten, Bonanza, Newegg, eBid, eCrater, and Ruby Lane. Thus, eBay’s strategic management must consider SWOT factors in improving the performance of the multinational online trading business.
eBay’s Strengths (Internal Strategic Factors)
This aspect of the SWOT analysis model enumerates the internal strategic factors that support business growth and global competitiveness. In this case of eBay Inc., these internal factors are strengths that enable growth and expansion in the e-commerce industry. The company can use these strengths to increase profitability and maintain a robust business. The following are eBay’s main strengths:
- Strong brand
- Cost-effectiveness based on economies of scale
- Region-specificity of operations
- High effectiveness of service
eBay Inc.’s strong brand is one of its major competitive advantages. For example, because of its popularity, the company’s brand is easily recognizable among consumers and merchants. This internal strategic factor makes the company competitive against other e-commerce firms. On the other hand, cost-effectiveness based on economies of scale is a strength that supports the fulfillment of eBay’s corporate vision and mission statements. This internal factor contributes to the company’s prominence as one of the biggest players offering online marketplace, classifieds, and ticket exchange services over the Internet. Cost-effectiveness also enhances eBay’s operations management, which shapes the operations of StubHub, Kijiji, and other subsidiaries. Moreover, region-specific operations lead to flexibility and competitiveness in responding to challenges in regional online retail/auction markets. This strength is based on eBay’s organizational structure, which involves geographical divisions that broadly group regional markets. Furthermore, the company’s trading websites attracts consumers and sellers/vendors because of high effectiveness. This internal factor is partly based on an organizational culture that encourages results-oriented excellence. The company’s management aims for strategies that capitalize on such strengths determined in this SWOT analysis.
eBay Inc.’s Weaknesses (Internal Strategic Factors)
In this aspect of the SWOT analysis model, the focus is on internal strategic factors that hinder business growth and development. In eBay’s case, these internal factors are the weaknesses that impose difficulties in improving the performance of the online auction/retail marketplace platform, classified listings websites, and ticket exchange business. To improve competitiveness and performance, the company must overcome these weaknesses. eBay Inc. has the following main weaknesses:
- Limited emphasis on innovation
- Limited flexibility to market variations
- Imitable business model
Even though results-oriented excellence is the focus of eBay’s organizational culture, innovation is not the top priority of the company. This internal factor is a weakness that limits the growth and competitiveness of the global e-commerce corporation because innovation is a major growth driver in firms with trading websites or operations chiefly through the Internet. On the other hand, eBay’s organizational structure maintains strong centralized functional units, which is beneficial in some ways, but disadvantageous to the business. For example, strong centralized units support organizational cohesiveness and consistency. However, the same internal strategic factor limits management flexibility to geographic and business-type variations in the international market. Also, the imitable nature of the company’s business model is a weakness that contributes to competition, especially involving new entrants. eBay Inc.’s strategies must overcome or reduce the impact of these internal factors identified in this aspect of the SWOT analysis.
Opportunities for eBay (External Strategic Factors)
This aspect of the SWOT analysis model identifies the external strategic factors that facilitate or support business growth and improvement. In this case, eBay Inc. has growth opportunities based on external factors in the e-commerce industry. The company’s management must develop appropriate strategies that suit these opportunities. The following are eBay’s main opportunities:
- Expansion of operations to more markets
- Improvement in innovation rate
- Improvement in customer service quality
eBay has an opportunity to expand its online operations to other markets. Currently, the company’s marketplace, classifieds, and ticket exchange revenues are generated mainly in the United States and some European markets. This external strategic factor can increase revenues and spread risk among more varied e-commerce markets. Such expansion should capitalize on rising online purchase rates and technological trends, such as the ones determined in the PESTEL/PESTLE analysis of eBay Inc. In relation, the company has an opportunity to improve its innovation for competitiveness through product development. For example, innovating new products for better user accessibility through the Internet can increase the company’s base of consumers and merchants. eBay’s marketing mix or 4P should reflect any such change. The opportunity to improve customer service quality is an external factor that requires strategies for improving customer satisfaction and managing customers’ expectations. These strategies add to eBay’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy, and enhance the attractiveness of the company’s trading, classifieds, and ticket exchange websites. Moreover, the company can diversify to improve business resilience. Through this external strategic factor, the company can create new revenues streams aside from online retail/auction and other existing operations. In this aspect of the SWOT analysis of eBay Inc., the external factors present major opportunities for improved revenues, profitability, and competitiveness.
Threats Facing eBay Inc. (External Strategic Factors)
In this aspect of the SWOT analysis model, the emphasis is on the external strategic factors that have potential to reduce business performance. This case points to the possible decline in eBay’s performance due to such external factors in its business environment. The company must protect its business from these factors that threaten profitability and survival in the online trading industry. The following threats are the most relevant to eBay Inc.:
- Strong competition
- Potential industry disruption through new technologies
Strong competition is a major threat determined in the Porter’s Five Forces analysis of eBay Inc. For example, the company faces rivalry with big e-commerce companies like Amazon, as well as smaller ones. This external strategic factor is a growth barrier in the industry environment. On the other hand, imitation is a threat because other firms or new entrants can copy eBay’s business model using available technologies for website operations. Also, the company faces potential industry disruption, which is based on technological trends. This external factor can drastically change the company’s business performance. Managers must ensure continuous improvement of competitive advantages to address the external strategic factors in this aspect of the SWOT analysis.
Summary & Recommendations – SWOT Analysis of eBay Inc.
Summary. The strengths of eBay Inc., such as the strong brand and effectiveness of service, make the e-commerce business competitive. These internal strategic factors support the company in addressing competition and other challenges in the global industry environment. However, weaknesses and threats impose pressure on the business. For example, this SWOT analysis points out that the company’s imitable business model makes it vulnerable to competition. eBay’s strategies must protect its business from such challenges. These strategies can further benefit the online business by considering the opportunities identified among the external factors.
Recommendations. The recommendations in this case are intended to strategically respond to the internal factors and external factors in the industry environment. The company’s management must especially consider the opportunities for business growth. Based on the results of this SWOT analysis, it is recommended that eBay Inc.:
- Increase its rate of innovation to address rapid changes in technologies, and to address the threat of imitation.
- Increase its degree of decentralization to improve business flexibility to e-commerce market differences.
- Expand operations internationally, building on economies of scale.
- eBay Inc. – Form 10-K.
- eBay Inc.’s Steve Yankovich Discusses Innovation Strategies.
- Gupta, G., & Mishra, R. P. (2016). A SWOT analysis of reliability centered maintenance framework. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 22(2), 130-145.
- Haile, M., & Krupka, J. (2016). Fuzzy Evaluation of SWOT Analysis. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 5(3), 172-179.
- Jackson, S. E., Joshi, A., & Erhardt, N. L. (2003). Recent research on team and organizational diversity: SWOT analysis and implications. Journal of Management, 29(6), 801-830.
- Leigh, D., & Pershing, A. J. (2006). SWOT analysis. The Handbook of Human Performance Technology, 1089-1108.
- U.S. Department of Commerce – International Trade Administration – Retail Services Spotlight – The Retail Services Industry in the United States.
- Valentin, E. K. (2001). SWOT analysis from a resource-based view. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 54-69.